La végétation périurbaine, quelle importance pour la conservation: Cas de la région du Gontougou (Nord-Est de la Côte d’Ivoire)

Ecologie et Conservation des ressources naturelles


Résumé :
La présente étude, réalisée en périphérie de la ville de Bondoukou (Nord-Est de la Côte d’Ivoire), vise à caractériser la végétation de cette zone sur le plan de sa composition floristique et de ses services écosystémiques pour le bien-être des populations. La collecte des données a combiné la méthode des relevés de surface et celle dite itinérante. Par la suite, des enquêtes ethnobotaniques basées sur des interrogations directes ont été réalisées auprès de paysans et tradipraticiens pour appréhender l’usage des espèces rencontrées. L’analyse des résultats a mis en évidence deux types de formations végétales que sont les jachères et les plantations. Les cultures rassemblent des plantations d’anacardier (Anacardium occidentale L.) et celles de teck (Tectona grandis L.). L’étude a permis de relever 113 espèces de plantes réparties en 97 genres et 46 familles. Les jachères sont relativement plus diversifiées (H = 1,58 ± 0,85) que les plantations. Six espèces ont été identifiées comme espèces à statut particulier. Plusieurs espèces sont citées comme plantes alimentaires. Les parties de plante les plus utilisées sont les fruits, la sève et les feuilles. D’autres plantes sont utilisées en médecine traditionnelle. Un autre groupe compte les espèces dont les organes sont utilisés pour confectionner les objets d’art. Enfin, il existe des plantes qui sont utilisées comme bois d’œuvre. Dans l’ensemble des biotopes du site, la biomasse des arbres est de 274,14 t/ha correspondant à un stock de carbone de 134,07 tC/ha. La zone périurbaine de Bondoukou procure de nombreux biens et services aux populations locales.

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